Journey Map

Tinker Tailor Solider Spy.

I read this book by a British author John le Carré and was impressed by the plot, the characters and the untangling of threads that lead to the story’s outcome – finding a mole in the British Secret Intelligence Service. The 2011 movie adaptation was good one too.

So, why are we talking about this book? Because this book made me realize how I need to present my user research findings in a different way.

When you walk into a room full of stakeholders who have with their own version of realities in their heads and hearts, you have the challenge to ask them the questions that will give you a sense of what their business is, what the users are and what they feel their future products should be. To get a great answer, you have to ask a great question.

All this know-how is drawn on a whiteboard / paper, which is called as a Journey Map (JM). A JM is a visual way to show the lifecycle of any user who interacts with a product or service. This lifecycle could be from start to the end of product usage, or could be in-between points. 

E.g. How browsers become shoppers on a website (end-to-end) or how employees return their laptop upon exit (a sub-set of employee experience).

So, why make a JM? Because it is one single document that all stakeholders believe the current state of the product or service is. JM is also the blueprint of the future. 

Designing a JM is also an art in itself. There are already industry-standard templates – different swim-lanes that show:

1) Overall goal of users (what they want to do).

2) Activities – individual steps that make up the goals.

3) Channels and touchpoints used (e.g. user browsed the website and used the chat functionality to log a complaint).

4) Emotional states of the users (how users think and feel).

5) Pain points – what makes the users frustrated, what irritates them to the point of users abandoning the product or service.

6) Opportunities – what are the quick wins, good-to-haves and must-haves in the immediate & long-term future in the product or service.

Here are some examples of JMs:

Example 1 – Whiteboard JM created for a workshop for a rental car company

Example 2 – Digitized JM depicting the current state for a service industry company

Example 3 – Digitized JM depicting the future state for a technology company. The future state doesn’t have pain points, it has points of delight :). 

I have always considered designing a JM as an equivalent of creating a story. 

1) There are characters (different types of users)

2) There are contexts (when did the user do this / that)

3) There are motives / plots (why an action was taken by the user)

4) There are consequences (the end results of users’ actions are so and so)

5) There is a timeline (end-to-end or a-day-in-life of users)

JMs are the outputs of workshops – design-thinking or product definition workshops. The intent and the end results are always the same – bring every stakeholder on the same page.

JM lets everyone preview the “moments of truth” (sincere sentiments of users), the high & low points (users experiencing happiness / frustrations) and the motivations (e.g. saving time and money).

JMs are not just confined to software products or services. The technique of designing a JM can be extended to books and movies – anything that has story at it’s core.

Visualize a JM depicting how the Infinity Stones exchange hands of different characters of the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). 

Christopher Nolan’s movies require re-watch. Imagine JMs drawn to demystify his movies like Memento, Prestige and Inception. That would be cool :).

Those cricketing ideas…..

At the moment, India is the ICC Cricket World Cup Champion defending its title in the 2015 edition. As I write, India has started off the defense campaign by a win over Pakistan. Online media, social networks and messengers are loaded with anecdotes, videos, game analysis, predictions and player trivia.

Indians are passionate about two things – Cricket and Bollywood. I have grown up on other sports in India too – tennis and football (soccer). But when it comes to the World Cup of cricket, other sports take a backseat. This will be the first time in 20 years, Indian cricket team will be playing without Sachin Tendulkar. He had been a regular figure in last 5 world cups, garnering maximum accolades to the team.

Over the years, the data visualization aspect of the game has improved. Nowadays, a cricket match analysis is replete with infographics and tools like wagon wheel, projection deliveries, momentum, hawk-eye, snickometer, etc.

There are multiple cameras that capture the action on the pitch and ground through different angles and get the granular data. From the sports data scientists’ point of view, the golden age of sports data (or rather cricketing data) is about to come. We now hear about the video analytics tools deployed by respective cricket teams to gauge the weakness and strengths of players.

Four years ago, I worked on two concepts related to cricket. One is the cricket scorecard and second is an iPad application.

I wanted to change the way cricket scorecards were presented to the users on television and websites. I wanted to give a new feel to it. This was my humble creation as I was just entering into the world of infographics design. Now, I look back and wonder at these designs and think they can be designed better :).

Scorecard - 1

Scorecard – 1

Scorecard - 2

Scorecard – 2

Scorecard - 3

Scorecard – 3

The second concept I did was a Twitter based cricket application called “IndiTalk!”. The premise is simple – talk, talk and talk about cricket. iPad was just launched, back then. The app UI bears good resemblance to the first generation iPad apps. This app, if designed today will probably have a different character to it.







Infographics : Day 1 @ TechMahindra

Pune is a city in Western India, often referred to as Oxford of the East. In lies Pune, the growth roots of many software organizations that have survived all the booms and busts of western markets. One of them is TechMahindra, which has offices in as many as 3 locations in Pune. The office that I am talking about is in the heart of the city, on the bustling Karve Road.

TechMahindra has always been inspiring designers like me to express their “solution mindset” to the problems no one cares about.

I took in my stride the necessity to design my own solutions that will help me on the job – two examples have already been shared through the blog posts – the Elevators infographics and the RUS infographic.

To a new employee, the first day in Karve Road office is memorable in many ways. The credit goes to the architecture of the connected TechMahindra buildings – the Sharda Center and Annex. The day starts with “no parking” in the designated office parking to accidentally landing up in parking by stairs, losing the way from Sharda Center to Annex and vice versa during lunch time, the orientation program on first day, etc are all too much too imbibe on the joining day.

I created an infographic – 4 column fold-out that explains the various activities that happen on 1st day in TechMahindra. There is a visual path that directs the reader / user to understand what they are supposed to do.

I submitted this design to the HR in 2013.

First Page of the Infographic Brochure

First Page of the Infographic Brochure

First Fold of the Infographic Brochure

First Fold of the Infographic Brochure

Second Fold of the Infographic Brochure

Second Fold of the Infographic Brochure

Third Fold of the Infographic Brochure

Third Fold of the Infographic Brochure

Closure of the Infographic Brochure

Closure of the Infographic Brochure

Infographics – Resource Utilization Summary

When you are part of a corporate ladder, you are bound to do things you do NOT want to. If you are a designer acting like a design manager in a software services organization, then brace yourself for challenges ahead.

One of the duties that you assume in this role happens to be team management. Imagine there are 5-6 designers report to you and you need to ensure that they are 100% billable. Services organization needs granular data of employees like utilization of employees, what business any employee is accountable for, how much back-dated billing has happened for an employee, etc.

Team management was one of my duties in my earlier job. The tool used to track my team members was not helpful at all. It did not give me any idea about RUS (Resource Utilization Summary). Confused navigation and inappropriate content of the RUS tool drove me to maintain my own spreadsheets of data. But something was still missing.

As always, necessity is the mother of invention. Getting lost and landing up on wrong floors of the TechMahindra building through elevators had made me design infographics for elevators. This time, I took the same approach for team management and created an infographic.

This is how it looks:

Infographics : Resource Utilization Summary

Infographics : Resource Utilization Summary

The header section shows summary of the team member. The 5 columns show the overall utilization of the team member across 5 months. “RUS” means Resource Utilization Summary generated by team management tool (a customized tool in TechMahindra). PMTs are project codes assigned to the team member.

As always, sketching on paper helps :).

Step 2) Create the information architecture – PART 2

“Gentleman, you had my curiosity. Now you have my attention”, says Leonardo DiCaprio in the movie ‘Django Unchained’.

Drawing parallels – the data just brings in curiosity. The information grabs the attention. What is this all talk about information architecture? What is see is what you get, right? But, what you see is different from what you perceive. Creating information architecture (IA) is a path towards understanding the ‘data’, making sense of the data, the ability to slice & dice the data and make relationships with the data.

Data, in its raw form, e.g. “Today’s temperature is 31 degrees Celsius”, does not really add any value. However, if we impart some additional meaning to the data, e.g. “The daily temperature has risen by 4 degree Celsius over last 2 days”, then it becomes information. Why? Because there is a reference point with the data, there is something preceding/succeeding with the current data and there is a relationship with different data points.

When we stack many data points, we get information. When we stack many deep insights from information, we become ‘knowledgeable’ :).

Let’s go back to our 5 examples discussed in the last post.

1) Things Organized Neatly

Every time I look at this site, it creates a ‘wow’ factor in my mind. Things that seem so nondescript are arranged in a visual form that communicates the shredded ecosystem in tiny parts. My view of this website (what I liked, what makes this website great is depicted below):

Things Organized Neatly

Things Organized Neatly

2) Flipkart

I have been user of this website since 2008. I was one of those Indian buyers who did not trust sharing my credit / debit card information online. Flipkart knew this well and brought in the “cash on delivery” model, which has now become the Indian e-commerce norm. They started with books and now sell almost every lifestyle product. Today, their speedy shipping time marvels many Indian customers, and I am one of them.  Here is how I view Flipkart:



3) Wikipedia’s content on Pune

I am an immigrant to Pune (India), with origins in the pre-Independence industrial town called Kirloskarwadi. I grew up with the internet age and have witnessed web migrate from 0.0 to 1.0 to 2.0 and beyond. Similarly, I have been a resident of Pune for the last 18 years and have seen the city growing by leaps and bounds. I visit Wikipedia often to see the changes in Pune city documented on the site. Wikipedia is a user generated content website – anyone can become author. This is what I view of the Wikipedia’s entry on Pune:

Wikipedia on Pune

Wikipedia on Pune

4) Google Maps

‘Travel’ without the travel – that’s what Google map does :). I feel that Google has superior user experience than Mapquest & Yahoo Maps, the reason it became so popular. It’s the map application that is on top of my mind every time I have to search any location. Being an Android user means it is also the de-facto application to search any location. Here is my view on Google Maps:

Google Maps

Google Maps


I have been a frequent traveler on Southwest for the last 2 years. I think that customer experience is in their DNA – both offline and online. The website’s content, navigation and discoverability of content are positive experiences. “Where should I find this?” questions generally get up answered up on the same page. The following image depicts my view of the ticket-booking journey on



 Hope you also have your own sketches / visuals of these websites. As said earlier, sketching will help you – it does not matter whether you designed a mind-map, infographic or anything else.

While drawing, I am sure you must have come across these questions:

  1. Home pages of these websites carry tremendous amount of information. What if the home page is designed in non-intuitive way?
  2. How will the users discover information that is not evident on the surface?
  3. How deep-rooted the navigation should be? Will the user get frustrated at 4-level navigation?
  4. Are login paths clearly visible to the user? Is log-out placed intuitively or is it done in the same way as social networking websites (hidden inside a menu)?
  5. What amount of information can user cope up with? What is that threshold / breaking point?

Answering these questions means getting closer to build the information architecture, the content and page layout.

Let’s look into details about creating the information architecture in our next post.

Now that you got attention (after you got curios), let’s sustain that :).

Step 1) Understand the ecosystem – PART 2

“A wise car hears one word and understands two” is a line quoted by one of the characters in Cars 2 movie.

A designer precisely does that 🙂 and comes up with his/her ‘mental model’ of the ecosystem using a visualization technique.

Mind map is a visualization technique that was introduced by Tony Buzan ( Google “mindmap” and you will get loads of links that explain how to create a mind map. A very detailed explanation of this can be found on Wikipedia:

Mind you, mind map is just one of the techniques of visualization. There are entity-relationship diagrams, time-series data, statistical distributions, maps, hierarchy diagrams, etc. You can use any or combinations of these techniques to create your view of the ecosystem. As discussed in the last post, I am comfortable with mind maps. Sometimes, I create infographics to depict my understanding of the ecosystem.

An advanced mind can refer to Edward Tufte’s books ( for deeper understanding of visualization methods.

To express the ecosystem in a graphical form, one need not be a great artist. Content is an important as the treatment. The ecosystem infographic is generally designed over a period of time – fine tuned every day as you (designer) get deeper insights on what is happening, who is influencing what, etc.

Engage with stakeholders, development teams, book their calendars. Set up some lock-down sessions with them :). Encourage them to express their wishful thinking using whiteboards. White-boarding activity is a sort-of ice-breaking ceremony between designers and stakeholders, which define the course of product/service design. Sessions like white-boarding activities need to be orchestrated professionally. Stakeholders are short on time and attention – pick their brains that will help you understand what and how they envision the product.

Some examples of the white boarding activities that I participated are shown below:

Whiteboard Sample 1

Whiteboard Sample 2

Whiteboard Sample 3

Whiteboard Sample 4

In your ‘lock-down’ sessions and white boarding activities perhaps, you may discover key information that is not documented anywhere. Record like a dicta-phone and act like a Sherlock :).

Last year I participated in one of the stakeholder workshops to understand the business requirements. The business goal was to transform the legacy desktop application (serving 13 US geographical states’ telecom professionals) into a portal based solution.

I quickly sketched the following (an infographic) that captured the essence of that meeting:

On the left is depiction of PMO (present mode of operation) = old vendor’s engagement model with cost.

On the right is FMO (future mode of operation) = my development team’s engagement model with cost.

The picture was clear to me – My development team had to deliver a tough assignment at a very low cost in a less timeframe. We were at loss. As indicated by the management, we delivered in spite of all the constraints.

While I was on a teleconference call with one of the stakeholders for another project, I quickly drew the following, took a picture of it and shared with him in the call:
The overall goal of the system design was captured correctly. In the call, we nailed down the granularities of processes represented by numbers.

Lets go back to our earlier thread – the mind map.

Mind-map is your view, how you see things and their relationships with other elements. It’s your ‘mental model’. A mind map starts with a goal (e.g. “reduce the no. of help-desk calls for the company”). This goal could be further broken down into sub-goals and sub-sub goals. Imagine a tree structure with the centralized goal radiating out branches (that represents sub-goals) that reach wide. Every sub-goal paves way for a sub-sub goal and so on. I think Buzan explains this better than me :). Copy-pasting the following 10 steps from Wikipedia, hope this helps.

Buzan suggests the following guidelines for creating mind maps:

  1. Start in the center with an image of the topic, using at least 3 colors.
  2. Use images, symbols, codes, and dimensions throughout your mind map.
  3. Select key words and print using upper or lower case letters.
  4. Each word/image is best alone and sitting on its own line.
  5. The lines should be connected, starting from the central image. The central lines are thicker, organic and thinner as they radiate out from the centre.
  6. Make the lines the same length as the word/image they support.
  7. Use multiple colors throughout the mind map, for visual stimulation and also to encode or group.
  8. Develop your own personal style of mind mapping.
  9. Use emphasis and show associations in your mind map.
  10. Keep the mind map clear by using radial hierarchy, numerical order or outlines to embrace your branches.

This list is itself more concise than a prose version of the same information and the mind map of these guidelines is itself intended to be more memorable and quicker to scan than either the prose or the list.

Too much of information overload? Don’t worry, have a look at the following mind-map I created for a financial software company:

Here are some additional mind maps I created for various enterprise portal dashboard assignments:


Practice the mind mapping technique or any other visualization technique that you are comfortable with. Do it on paper first. Spend some time with your visualization, talk to people, refine your visualization based on insights gathered. There is a digital tool too to create mind maps, Mindjet Mindmanager (

That brings me my tools for paper prototyping. Here are they:

  1. An A5 size notebook (plain paper). I use notebooks by Nightingale ( – good paper & packaging quality).
  2. Stock of A4 papers
  3. 0.7mm mechanical pencil (I am currently using Camlin Klick Pro pencil – Why 0.7mm? Because you can get thicker lines on paper prototypes :).
  4. Color pencils (any make, no preference).
  5. Eraser (Staedler –[page]=1)
  6. Post-it notes (3M, of course)

This 1st step (understanding the ecosystem) is a crucial one. This is the foundation of your building. Plan it well.

Get the picture?